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猛龙过江_mysql 开发进阶篇系列 29 数据库二进制包安装

概述  

  对于二进制安装,优点是可以安装到任何路径下,灵活性好,一台服务器可以安装多个mysql。缺点是已经绎过编译,性能不如源码编译得好,不能灵活定制编译参数。如果用户即不想安装最简单却不够灵活的RPM包,又不想安装复杂费时的源码包,那么已编译好的二进制包将是最好的选择。

一.步骤1: 解压glib包

-- 在 /usr/local 下创建一个mysql文件夹,用来存放
[root@hsr local]# mkdir mysql
[root@hsr local]# ls
bin  etc  games  include  lib  lib64  libexec  mysql  sbin  share  src

-- 在原有/usr/tool目录将gz压缩包解压 [root@hsr tool]# tar -zxvf mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/myisam_ftdump mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/myisamchk mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/myisamlog mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/myisampack mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/mysql mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/mysql_client_test_embedded mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin/mysql_config_editor .....
--将解压的文件复制到/usr/local/mysql目录下 [root@hsr tool]# sudo cp -r mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 /usr/local/mysql
--在mysql-->
mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64路径下 解压的文件共9个 目录如下:
[root@hsr mysql]#
ls mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 bin COPYING docs include lib man README share support-files

  注意:mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64目录层次要去掉,变为/usr/local/mysql 下的9个目录,在文章后面会去掉这层。

  

二. 步骤2:?   

?  2.1 添加mysql用户 useradd -r -g 用户名 用户组

[root@hsr mysql]# groupadd mysql
[root@hsr mysql]# useradd -r -g mysql mysql

  2.2?切换到 /usr/local/mysql 目录下,改变目录拥有者为mysql

[root@hsr mysql]# chown -R  mysql.mysql /usr/local/mysql

  2.3 新环境安装libaio包?mysql 依赖于libaio

[root@hsr mysqld]# yum search libaio

三 步骤3:  

  安装mysql,使用?--initialize,basedir mysql基础目录,basedir mysql基础目录。

[root@hsr ~]# cd /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin
[root@hsr bin]# ./mysqld  --initialize --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
2018-08-23T06:56:21.157088Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2018-08-23T06:56:21.157246Z 0 [ERROR] Can"t find error-message file "/usr/local/mysql/share/errmsg.sys". Check error-message file location and "lc-messages-dir" configuration directive.
2018-08-23T06:56:26.287087Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2018-08-23T06:56:27.059913Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2018-08-23T06:56:27.138616Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: a7e28575-a6a1-11e8-af13-000c29affb65.
2018-08-23T06:56:27.154064Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table "mysql.gtid_executed" cannot be opened.
2018-08-23T06:56:27.155635Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: ro0ssOGT?ocf

四步骤4:

  4.1 创建RSA private key。

[root@hsr bin]# bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data

  

  4.2 修改当前目录拥有者为 root 用户,修改data 目录拥有者为 mysql

[root@hsr bin]# chown -R root:root /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/data

?五.步骤5 配置mysql(mysql.server)和my.cnf文件

--检查 etc/my.cnf文件是否存在 (二进制安装,默认配置文件在/etc/my.cnf)
    [root@hsr etc]# find -name  my.cnf
    ./my.cnf
--将support-files 目录下的mysql.server文件复制到etc/init.d下 [root@hsr ~]# cd /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/support-files [root@hsr support-files]# cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
-- 配置/etc/init.d/mysql服务文件 添加basedir和datadir [root@hsr support-files]# vim /etc/init.d/mysql

    

   修改my.cnf? 配置以下四个参数(注意:chkconfig -- level 35 mysqld on 不要加上,后面报错,又得去掉)
    

?六.步骤6?启动mysql

[root@hsr bin]# service mysql start
/etc/init.d/mysql: line 239: my_print_defaults: command not found
    Starting MySQL ERROR! Couldn"t find MySQL server (/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe) 

--提示未找到路径,需要把"mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64" 文件夹去掉,使用mv 将里面的文件移到/usr/locl/mysql下,共9个文件
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/README /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/COPYING /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/support-files /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/share /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/man /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/lib /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/include /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/docs /usr/local/mysql
[root@hsr bin]# mv /usr/local/mysql/mysql-5.7.23-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/bin /usr/local/mysql
-- 再启动
[root@hsr bin]# service mysql start
Starting MySQL.2018-08-24T01:06:20.545225Z mysqld_safe error: log-error set to "/var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log", however file don"t exists. Create writable for user "mysql".
 ERROR! The server quit without updating PID file (/usr/local/mysql/data/hsr.pid).

-- 提示/var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log 不存在, 打开my.cnf 能看到定义的默认路径
[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log
pid-file=/var/run/mariadb/mariadb.pid

--创建目录 给权限
[root@hsr bin]# mkdir /var/log/mariadb 
[root@hsr bin]# touch /var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log 
[root@hsr bin]# chown -R mysql:mysql  /var/log/mariadb/
-- 再启动
[root@hsr bin]# service mysql start
Starting MySQL.... ERROR! The server quit without updating PID file (/usr/local/mysql/data/hsr.pid).

-- 错误信息是hsr.pid进程出问题,先查看下日志
[root@hsr ~]# cat /var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log

  
  ?在my.cnf中注释上面参数(#chkconfig --level 35 mysqld on),再启动
  
  上图意思是不能创建mysql.sock.lock 文件,一般是权限不足,如下设置好权限,启动成功
  

七 登录mysql

[root@hsr ~]# mysql -u root -p
bash: mysql: 未找到命令

  未找到命令,是由于系统默认会查找/usr/bin下的命令,如果这个命令不在这个目录下,就会找不到命令,需要映射一个链接到/usr/bin目录下,相当于建立一个链接文件。

[root@hsr ~]#  ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql /usr/bin
[root@hsr ~]# mysql -u -root -p
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can"t connect to local MySQL server through socket "/tmp/mysql.sock" (2)

--错误信息是不能连接到本地的socket ,系统默认找到了/tmp目录下,需要设置链接文件
[root@hsr tmp]# ln -s /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock /tmp/mysql.sock
[root@hsr ~]# mysql -u -root -p
Enter password:

?八. 设置密码  

  8.1 打开my.cnf文件,添加skip-grant-tables,来重置密码,如下所示
    
  8.2 启动服务,再次登录,在输入密码处按回车键进入。

root hsr ln s usr local mysql bin mysql usr bin root hsr mysql u root p ERROR 2002 HY000: Can" t connect to local MySQL server through socket " tmp mysql. sock" 2 cuo wu xin xi shi bu neng lian jie dao ben di de socket , xi tong mo ren zhao dao le tmp mu lu xia, xu yao she zhi lian jie wen jian root hsr tmp ln s var lib mysql mysql. sock tmp mysql. sock root hsr mysql u root p Enter password:? ba. she zhi mi ma     8. 1 da kai my. cnf wen jian, tian jia skipgranttables, lai zhong zhi mi ma, ru xia suo shi       8. 2 qi dong fu wu, zai ci deng lu, zai shu ru mi ma chu an hui che jian jin ru.

[root@hsr ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[root@hsr ~]# service mysql restart
Shutting down MySQL.. SUCCESS! 
Starting MySQL. SUCCESS! 
[root@hsr ~]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.23

  8.3 进入mysql后,修改密码

mysql> use mysql;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed

mysql> update user set authentication_string=password("123456") where user="root";
Query OK, 1 row affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 1

  退出mysql>quit;? 编辑 my.cnf 注释掉#skip-grant-tables

 8.4 重启mysql服务,输入修改后的密码(123456)进入

[root@hsr ~]# service mysql restart
Shutting down MySQL.. SUCCESS! 
Starting MySQL. SUCCESS! 
[root@hsr ~]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.23

?九 远程登录

-- 登录到mysql后设置权限
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO "root"@"%" IDENTIFIED BY "123456" WITH GRANT OPTION; 
ERROR 1820 (HY000): You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement.
--  再设置密码
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD("123456");
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
-- 设置权限
mysql> ALTER USER "root"@"localhost" PASSWORD EXPIRE NEVER;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
-- 刷新权限 
mysql>  flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
-- 设置远程登录权限
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO "root"@"%" IDENTIFIED BY "123456" WITH GRANT OPTION; 
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

  -- 在my.cnf中 添加端口,重启服务
  

-- 测试端口是否打开
[root@hsr ~]#  firewall-cmd    --query-port=3306/tcp
no
-- 防火墙设置
[root@hsr ~]# firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=3306/tcp --permanent
success
-- 重新加载
[root@hsr ~]# firewall-cmd --reload
success
-- 再次测试端口
[root@hsr ~]# firewall-cmd    --query-port=3306/tcp
yes

  -- 在windows端拼通成功
  

  --- 最后使用SQLyog连接成功
  
  

  

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